Advances in Space Science and Technology, Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of basic and applied astronautics. This book deals with one of the more practical aspects of artificial satellites, measurement of the Doppler effect. Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the Doppler effect of Earth-circling satellites. This text then explores the possibility of the existence of intelligent beings other than man. Other chapters consider the historical development of multistage rockets and space carrier vehicles and explain the concepts and approaches to manned orbital flight. This book discusses as well the problems of bringing spacecraft safely through planetary atmospheres and onto the surface. The final chapter deals with radioactive elements as energy sources for spacecraft propulsion in orbital transfer and for travel between the worlds of the Solar System. This book is a valuable resource for biologists, astronomers, chemists, geologists, and geochemists.