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1st Edition - September 28, 1988
Author: Kendall A Smith
9 7 8 - 0 - 3 2 3 - 1 3 9 9 4 - 6
Interleukin 2 focuses on interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its impact on immunology. Topics covered include IL-2's mechanism of action, the structure of the IL-2 receptor, the… Read more
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Interleukin 2 focuses on interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its impact on immunology. Topics covered include IL-2's mechanism of action, the structure of the IL-2 receptor, the characteristics of natural and recombinant human IL-2, regulation of IL-2 production by the T cell antigen receptor, how IL-2 binding induces the transcription of a novel set of genes, and the pathological roles of IL-2 receptor inducers in adult T cell leukemia. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a historical overview of IL-2, from the discovery of soluble mitogenic factors in culture media of stimulated lymphocytes to the discovery of IL-2 as the molecule responsible for stimulating T cell proliferation. The physicochemical and biological properties of purified recombinant IL-2 are then described, paying particular attention to natural IL-2 derived from human peripheral blood leukocytes. The chapters that follow discuss the different techniques used to gain insight into the functionally important regions of IL-2, the role of the T cell antigen receptor in regulating the production of IL-2, and the structure of the human high-affinity IL-2 receptor. The book also describes transmembrane signaling by IL-2, IL-2-inducible gene expression in T lymphocytes, abnormal IL-2 receptor expression in adult T cell leukemia, the use of IL-2 receptors in immunosuppressive therapy, and the use of IL-2 as a pharmacologic reagent. This book will be of interest to students and researchers in immunology and biochemistry.
ContributorsPrefaceForeword1. Interleukin 2: A 10-Year Perspective I. Introduction II. Interleukin 2 III. The IL-2 Receptor IV. IL-2 Receptor Structure V. Functional Consequences of the IL-2 Receptor Bimolecular Structure VI. α Chains Are Responsible for Stimulating Cell Cycle Progression VII. The Regulation of IL-2 Receptor Expression VIII. The IL-2 Receptor Regulation of T Cell Growth IX. IL-2 Stimulates T Cell G1 Progression and c-myb Expression X. Conclusions References 2. Characteristics of Natural and Recombinant Human Interleukin 2 I. Introduction II. Natural IL-2 Derived from Human PBL III. Recombinant IL-2 Derived from E. coli IV. Comparison of Biological Activities for Natural and Recombinant IL-2 V. Summary and Conclusions References3. Interleukin 2: Approaches to Structure Determination I. Introduction II. Preliminary Data III. Species Homology IV. Antibodies as Structure Probes V. Recombinant DNA-Derived Proteins and Site-Directed Mutagenesis VI. Peptide Synthesis VII. Molecular Modeling and Graphics VIII. Conclusion References 4. Regulation of Interleukin 2 Production by the T Cell Antigen Receptor I. Introduction II. The T3/Ti Complex: Obligate Coexpression of T3 with Ti III. Jurkat as a Model for the Study of T3/Ti-Mediated Activation IV. The Role of Increases in the Concentration of Cytoplasmic Free Ca2+ in T3/Ti-Mediated Signaling V. T3/Ti-Mediated Turnover of Polyphosphoinositides VI. T3/Ti Activates Protein Kinase C VII. Cholera Toxin Inhibits T3/Ti-Mediated Polyphosphoinositide Turnover VIII. Induction of IL-2 Transcripts Requires Sustained T3/Ti-Ligand Interactions IX. Summary and Future Directions References 5. New Perspectives on the Structure of the Human High-Affinity Interleukin 2 Receptor I. Introduction II. Characterization of the Human IL-2 Receptor (Tac Antigen) III. High- and Low-Affinity Forms of the IL-2 Receptor IV. Expression of the Tac cDNA in Eukaryotic Cells V. Structural Analysis of the High-Affinity IL-2 Receptor References6. Transmembrane Signaling by Interleukin 2 I. Introduction II. Transmembrane Events in IL-2-Induced Proliferation III. Delayed Events IV. Oncogene Expression V. Discussion References 7. Mechanisms of Interleukin 2 Action: IL-2-Inducible Gene Expression in T Lymphocytes I. Introduction II. Early Molecular Events Associated with the Interaction of IL-2 and IL-2 Receptor: Potential Involvement of Protein Kinase C and Calcium III. Rationale for Investigating the Expression of Protooncogenes and Other Genes in IL-2-Stimulated T Lymphocytes IV. IL-2-Inducible Expression of Genes in Activated T Lymphocytes V. Some Possible Explanations for the Patterns of Gene Expression Induced by IL-2, Phorbol Esters, and Mitogenic Lectins in Activated T Lymphocytes VI. Mechanisms of IL-2-Mediated Gene Expression VII. IL-2-Mediated Signal Transduction: Speculations and Future Directions References 8. Interleukin 2 Binding Induces Transcription of a Novel Set of Genes: Implications for T Lymphocyte Population Dynamics I. Introduction II. Modes of IL-2 Induction III. Mechanics of IL-2 Action IV. Measures of IL-2 Responsiveness V Significance of Positive IL-2 Receptor Regulation VI. Conclusion References9. Abnormal Interleukin 2 Receptor Expression in Adult T Cell Leukemia I. Introduction II. Development of Anti-Tac Monoclonal Antibody III. Identification of Anti-Tac Antibody as an Anti-IL-2 Receptor Antibody IV. Characterization of IL-2 Receptor V. IL-2R Expression in B Cells VI. IL-2R Expression in ATL VII. HTLV-I Infection and IL-2R Expression VIII. Possible Role of IL-2 Receptor in the Leukemogenesis of ATL IX. IL-2R Expression in T Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia X. Summary References 10. Interleukin 2 Receptor Inducers: Pathological Roles in Adult T Cell Leukemia I. Introduction II. Studies of IL-2R and ATL III. Properties of Human IL-2R Protein IV. Cloning of IL-2R Gene V. Humoral Control of IL-2R Expression VI. Abnormal Regulation of IL-2R Expression in ATL VII. ADF Inducing IL-2R Expression VIII. IL-2-Dependent and -Independent ATL: Stepwise Progression Model IX. Possible Roles of IL-2R Dysregulation in ATL X. Conclusion References 11. Interleukin 2 Receptor-Directed Immunosuppressive Therapy I. Introduction II. Effect of M7/20 Treatment on Murine Cardiac Allografts III. Effect of M7/20 Treatment of Murine Skin Allografts IV. Effect of M7/20 and Anti-L3T4 Antibodies on Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH): The Role of Complement and Epitope V. Effect of M7/20 Anti-IL-2R Antibody on Murine Autoimmunity: Diabetes Mellitus and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Models VI. Effect of ART18 Anti-IL-2R Antibody Treatment on Rat Cardiac Allografts VII. Synergistic Effect of Anti-IL-2R mAb and Cyclosporin (CsA) Treatment VIII. Effect of Anti-IL-2R on Graft Infiltration IX. Effect of ART18 Treatment on Host Alloreactivity X. Effect of ART18 Therapy on Pancreatic Islet Allografts XI. Anti-IL-2R mAb Treatment of Subhuman and Human Primate Recipients of Kidney Allografts XII. Development of a Recombinant IL-2 Toxin by Gene Fusion Technique XIII. Discussion References 12. Interleukin 2 as a Pharmacologic Reagent I. Introduction II. Rationale for the Use of IL-2 In Vivo III. Immunotherapeutic Effects of IL-2 in Murine Models IV. Human Studies of IL-2 Administration V. Summary and Conclusions ReferencesIndex